word文档研究生英语阅读教程(提高级-第三版)课文及课后习题答案

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新编研究生英语系列教程研究生英语阅读教程(提高级/第三版)Lesson1Spillonomics:UnderestimatingRisk·································1Lesson2HumbledbyNature,HumblebyCulture··························9Lesson3HowWeBroketheMurdochScandal·······························14UnitTwoReadingBiographiesandPersonalRecollectionsLesson4BillClinton························································21Lesson5SteveJobs························································39Lesson6ABeautifulMind···················································42UnitThreeReadingEssaysLesson7AChristmasSermononPeace···········································57Lesson8LeftforDead························································64Lesson9SpelloftheRisingMoon········································68UnitFourReadingScientificandTechnicalArticlesLesson10OurPictureoftheUniverse···············································74Lesson11MindoverMachine················································87Lesson122InchesBetweenLife,Death···········································95UnitFiveReadingShortStoriesandNovelsLesson13CatintheRain·········································101Lesson14TheStolenParty································106Lesson15ASummer’sReading····································109课文全文参考译文···································113UnitOneReadingNewsReportsLesson1Spillonomics:UnderestimatingRiskKEYSTOEXERCISES.ReadingComprehensionA.1.B(Paragraph1:YearsbeforetheDeepwaterHorizonrigblew,BPwasdevelopingareputationasanoilcompanythattooksafetyriskstosavemoney.)2.C(Paragraph1:NoneotherthanJoeBarton,aRepublicancongressmanfromTexasandaglobal-warmingskeptic…noneotherthan:usedtoemphasizethesurprisingidentityofapersonorthing正是,恰是)3.D(Paragraph4:ForallthecriticismBPexecutivesmaydeserve,theyarefarfromtheonlypeopletostrugglewithsuchlow-probability,high-costevents.Nearlyeveryonedoes.)4.B(Paragraph4:Whenaneventisdifficulttoimagine,wetendtounderestimateitslikelihood.Thisistheproverbialblackswan.)5.C(Paragraph6:Afterthe9/11attacks,Americanscanceledplanetripsandtooktotheroad.Therewerenoterroristattacksinthiscountryin2002,yettheadditionaldrivingapparentlyledtoanincreaseintrafficfatalities.)6.B(Paragraph7:Whenthestakesarehighenough,itfallstogovernmenttohelpitscitizensavoidtheseentirelyhumanerrors.Themarket,lefttoitsowndevices,oftencannotdoso.)7.D(Paragraph8:Federallawhelpedthemunderestimatethecosts.)8.A(Paragraph10:Thebigfinancialriskisnolongerahousingbubble.Instead,itmaybethehugedeficitsthatthegrowthofMedicare,MedicaidandSocialSecuritywillcauseincomingyears—andthepossibilitythatlenderswilleventuallybecomenervousaboutextendingcredittoWashington.)9.A(Paragraph12:Nothinglikethathaseverhappenedbefore.Evenimaginingitisdifficult.Itismucheasiertohopethattheoddsofsuchanoutcomearevanishinglysmall.Infact,it‟sonlynaturaltohavethishope.Butthatdoesn‟tmakeitwise.)10.D(Thewholetext.)B.ReasonsBehindWrongActionsConsequencesSuggestedSolutionsDeepwaterHorizonObsessionwithprofitsCostcuttingBPshouldbefullyawareofSafetycouldnotbethepotentialrisksandspendguaranteedmoremoneytomaketheirHumanweaknessUnderestimatingtherisksfacilitiessafer.CongressandtheObamaadministrationshouldtakeA1990CongresslawputaFederallawhelpedBPsensiblesteps,likeliftingGovernmentpolicycaponspiller‟sliabilityforexecutivesunderestimatetheliabilitycapandfreeingcleanupcostat$75million.thecostsofdamages.regulatorsfromtheswayofindustry..VocabularyⅡA.1.C2.B3.C4.B5.A6.D7.D8.D9.C10.AB.1.cap2.Inthewakeof3.proverbial4.stemfrom5.odds6.given7.comewhatmay8.Farfrom9.sway10.InretrospectⅢ.Cloze1.wisdom2.tend3.shrink4.unexpected5.puzzle6.cameupwith7.severe8.altered9.Regardlessof10.necessarilyⅣ.Translation1.就连乔·巴顿,对全球变暖持怀疑态度、得克萨斯州的共和党众议员,都谴责BP管理人员“对安全和环境问题表现得漠不关心”。2.显然,考虑到清理费用和对BP声誉的影响,高管们真希望可以回到过去,多花些钱让“深水地平线”更安全。他们没有增加这笔费用就表明他们认为钻机在当时的状态下不会出问题。3.埃克森公司瓦尔迪兹漏油事件发生后,在1990年的一个法案很少引人注意的一项条款中,美国国会将钻机泄漏清理费用的责任上限定为7500万美元。即使对旅游业、渔业等造成的经济损失高达数十亿美元,责任方也仅需要支付7500万美元。4.不过,如果认为我们目前仍然低估的只是那些突然间引人注目的风险,那是非常愚蠢的。Ⅴ.OralPracticeandDiscussion1.Whatarethetwobasicandoppositetypesofmistakeswehumanstendtomake?Wemaketwobasic—andopposite—typesofmistakes.Whenaneventisdifficulttoimagine,wetendtounderestimateitslikelihood.Ontheotherhand,whenanunlikelyeventisalltooeasytoimagine,weoftengointheoppositedirectionandoverestimatetheodds.2.WhatlessonsshouldwelearnfromtheDeepwaterHorizon?Open.3.Atthetimeofmaximizingprofits,whatelseshouldaresponsiblecompanydo?4.Whatarethechallengesindevelopingtheeconomywithoutharmingtheenvironment?MOREINFORMATIONABOUTTHETEXT1.TheDeepwaterHorizonoilspill:(alsoreferredtoastheBPoilspill,theGulfofMexicooilspill,theBPoildisaster,ortheMacondoblowout)anoilspillintheGulfofMexicowhichflowedforthreemonthsin2010.Itisthelargestaccidentalmarineoilspillinthehistoryofthepetroleumindustry.Thespillstemmedfromasea-flooroilgusherthatresultedfromtheApril20,2010,explosionofDeepwaterHorizon,whichdrilledontheBP-operatedMacondoProspect.Theexplosionkilled11menworkingontheplatformandinjured17others.OnJuly15,2010,theleakwasstoppedbycappingthegushingwellhead,afterithadreleasedabout4.9millionbarrels(780,000m3)ofcrudeoil.Anestimated53,000barrelsperday(8,400m3/d)escapedfromthewelljustbeforeitwascapped.Itisbelievedthatthedailyflowratediminishedovertime,startingatabout62,000barrelsperday(9,900m3/d)anddecreasingasthereservoirofhydrocarbonsfeedingthegusherwasgraduallydepleted.OnSeptember19,2010,thereliefwellprocesswassuccessfullycompleted,andthefederalgovernmentdeclaredthewell“effectivelydead”.InAugust2011,oilandoilsheencoveringseveralsquaremilesofwaterwerereportedsurfacingnotfarfromBP‟sMacondowell.ScientificanalysisconfirmedtheoilisachemicalmatchforMacondo252.TheCoastGuardsaidtheoilwastoodispersedtorecover.ThespillcausedextensivedamagetomarineandwildlifehabitatsandtotheGulf‟sfishingandtourismindustries.Skimmerships,floatingcontainmentbooms,anchoredbarriers,sand-filledbarricadesalongshorelines,anddispersantswereusedinanattempttoprotecthundredsofmilesofbeaches,wetlands,andestuariesfromthespreadingoil.Scientistsalsoreportedimmenseunderwaterplumesofdissolvedoilnotvisibleatthesurfaceaswellasan80-square-mile(210km²)“killzone”surroundingtheblownwell.InlateNovember2010,4,200squaremiles(11,000km²)oftheGulfwerere-closedtoshrimpingaftertarballswerefoundinshrimpers‟nets.TheamountofLouisianashorelineaffectedbyoilgrewfrom287miles(462km)inJulyto320miles(510km)inlateNovember2010.InJanuary2011,anoilspillcommissionerreportedthattarballscontinuetowashup,oilsheentrailsareseeninthewakeoffishingboats,wetlandsmarshgrassremainsfouledanddying,andcrudeoilliesoffshoreindeepwaterandinfinesiltsandsandsonshore.AresearchteamfoundoilonthebottomoftheseafloorinlateFebruary2011thatdidnotseemtobedegrading.OnMay26,2011,theLouisianaDepartmentofEnvironmentalQualityextendedthestateofemergencyrelatedtotheoilspill.ByJuly9,2011,roughly491miles(790kilometers)ofcoastlineinLouisiana,Mississippi,AlabamaandFloridaremainedcontaminatedbyBPoil,accordingtoaNOAAspokesperson.InOctober2011,aNOAAreportshowsdolphinsandwhalescontinuetodieattwicethenormalrate.InJanuary2011theWhiteHouseoilspillcommissionreleaseditsfinalreportonthecausesoftheoilspill.TheyblamedBPanditspartnersformakingaseriesofcost-cuttingdecisionsandthelackofasystemtoensurewellsafety.Theyalsoconcludedthatthespillwasnotanisolatedincidentcausedby“rogueindustryorgovernmentofficials”,butthat“therootcausesaresystemicand,absentsignificantreforminbothindustrypracticesandgovernmentpolicies,mightwellrecur”.Afteritsowninternalprobe,BPadmittedthatitmademistakeswhichledtotheGulfofMexicooilspill.InJune2010BPsetupa$20billionfundtocompensatevictimsoftheoilspill.ToJuly2011,thefundhaspaid$4.7billionto198,475claimants.Inall,thefundhasnearly1millionclaimsandcontinuestoreceivethousandsofclaimseachweek.InSeptember2011,theU.S.governmentpublisheditsfinalinvestigativereportontheaccident.Inessence,thatreportstatesthatthemaincausewasthedefectivecementjob,andHalliburton,BPandTransoceanwere,indifferentways,responsiblefortheaccident.2.ThePrudhoeBayoilspill:(2006Alaskanoilspill)anoilspillthatwasdiscoveredonMarch2,2006atapipelineownedbyBPExploration,Alaska(BPXA)inwesternPrudhoeBay,Alaska.Initialestimatessaidthatupto267,000U.S.gallons(6,400bbl)werespilledover1.9acres(7,700m2),makingitthelargestoilspillonAlaska‟snorthslopetodate.Alaska‟sunifiedcommandratifiedthevolumeofcrudeoilspilledas212,252U.S.gallons(5,053.6bbl)inMarch2008.Thespilloriginatedfroma0.25-inch(0.64cm)holeina34-inch(86cm)diameterpipeline.Thepipelinewasdecommissionedandlaterreplacedwitha20-inch(51cm)diameterpipeline

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